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In either situation, expressed in 6represents the policy-driven minimum number of stands or the minimum score across alternative nonlogging land uses. In a full-blown application of the planning model within an actual forest planning context, it would be possible to use participatory techniques from multicriteria decision analysis to determine the relative weight of 11248 land uses.
Datasets and technical assistance were provided by R. Marginal opportunity costs for community use a and biodiversity conservation bassuming stands are weighted equally for nonlogging land uses within Faro State Forest; marginal opportunity costs considering different weights among stands for nonlogging land uses for community use c and biodiversity conservation d.
In the remaining area, only high-value species would be logged. Three maps of profitability of logging were generated for the three timber value classes considered: The Brazilian government estimates that up to 13 million ha of forest concessions could be established within the first 10 years of implementation of the Public Forest Management Law PMFL.
Percentage of stands harvested within Faro State Forest with an increasing number of stands converted to other land uses from current logging centers a and from closer urban centers b. Harvests are assumed to be performed from current logging centers. While the results are useful for planning in FSF, our primary intention is to demonstrate the capability of the model to provide useful information to forest planners.
In the case of community use, we assigned to stands in which older forest fires were identified — a weight equal to two-thirds the weight assigned to stands indicating more recent forest fire activity — equal to 2 and 3, resp. Inthe Brazilian Forest Service SFB concluded the first inventory of public lands, a starting point for detailed land use planning within public forests.
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In a given public forest, government seeks to maximize profits from logging. To give a better sense of the size of a cell in forest management terms, a cell of 2, hectares would represent dee small-scale concession under the provisions of the PFML. Meanwhile, our estimates of government receipts should be viewed with caution.
Figures 2 and 3 show what happens to the number of stands assigned for logging and harvested volume when logging is performed by firms located in the current logging centers Figures 2 a and 3 a and if mills move to closer cities Figures 3 a and 3 b. Lel the two multiple use scenarios investigated, the potential for logging was considered equal to 1 for any stand in which the estimate of logging profitability was greater than zero, and zero otherwise.
Annual profits from logging in Faro State Forest for government and loggers with an increasing number of stands in nonlogging land uses harvested by current logging 1124 a or from closer cities b ; annual profits from logging in Faro State Forest for government and loggers with an increasing cumulative score for biodiversity conservation c and for community use d. Currently, annual profits from logging represent one of 1184 primary variables considered by the Brazilian Government in decisionmaking to grant concessions in public forests.
Production possibility frontiers for logging and livelihood systems a and logging and fe conservation bassuming stands are weighted equally for nonlogging land uses within Faro State Forest; production possibility frontiers considering different weights among stands for nonlogging land uses, for logging and livelihood systems cand logging and biodiversity conservation d.
Lentini would like to thank D. For simplicity, we assume that constant returns to scale across all land uses and no agglomeration effects between any stand and the spatial composition of the forest. The remaining stands cannot be harvested due to high slopes. While generating optimal land use configurations, kei model enables an assessment of the market and 2060 tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities.
Next, we need to incorporate land uses other than timber concessions into the model.
International Journal of Forestry Research
Zoning decisions in public forests, assuming that logging is the only revenue-generating activity, will create opportunity costs in terms of lost NPV.
The volume harvested is constrained by the available merchantable timber volume in the forest and the milling capacity of the logging centers surrounding the public forest. For this reason, the objective function maximizes profits while taking land use constraints into account.
The authors are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their valuable recommendations. We begin by establishing the basic selective logging timber supply problem, where the decision variables determine the amount of volume per ha to harvest. Fourth, at the landscape level, this model can help to determine the optimum level of timber production and spatial distribution of alternative land uses from public lands within a given region by taking into account future production trends of the logging industry.
Although this work was reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official agency policy. Equation 4 maximizes profits from logging within a single year.
In this section, we report a series of results from the model applied to FSF. Alternatively, the planner can impose a minimum score to be achieved for a given land use by assigning different weights for each land use. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The curves traced out mainly Figures 5 a and 5 b due to the similar comparative scale are useful to assess the effects of nonlogging land use alternatives over the NPV generated by logging.
Every three years the interval represented byBrazilian law requires independent audits of concessionaire performance within the concessions. Table of Contents Alerts. All these curves show that MOCs increase when a large proportion of 206 is used for uses other than logging since more profitable stands are increasingly assigned to these uses.
If the stand is harvested, the timber will travel to at least one of mills located in logging centers denoted by. The importance of this study is demonstrated in two ways.
In the case of FSF, the decrease in the NPV caused by an increase in the proportion of the 22006 Forest dedicated to community use is larger than the decrease caused by biodiversity conservation, ceteris paribus.
Further research could also incorporate different spatial configurations and sizes for stands destined for concessions to examine the costs and benefits of allocating 112884 to firms of different sizes. For decisionmaking purposes, it is important to be able to estimate the royalty rate that permits the logging firm to just satisfy participation constraints. Figures 5 c and 5 d show the frontier by applying differentiated weights for stands under these alternative uses, respectively, for community use and biodiversity conservation, using as a starting point the same NPV in the UL scenario.
Some data and suggestions were also 112844 by L. Equation 5 imposes a constraint guaranteeing no more than a single land use choice per parcel.
Macpherson contributed to this work though he is a graduate student at the University of Florida, while receiving support from the Working Forests in the Tropics Program through a National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Grant no. For the largest problem that includes all land uses, the model solves for 13, continuous variables and binary variableswith 14, constraints.
Our assumption in the model is that the government is able to use an unspecified nondistortionary royalty instrument that does not influence harvest behavior to extract rents to ds point that concessionaires just earn profits equivalent to those of operating legally on private lands. Lastly, as the Brazilian concession experience expands, more accurate estimates of concession establishment costs, transaction costs generated by the licensing of forest management plans, and audit costs will be available for the better accuracy of the model.